The fortress Toprak Kala
Toprak-Kala fortress is located in 12 km from Buston settlement in the Ellikkalinsk area of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. It is considered as the most significant among other fortresses of the ancient Khoresm.
The complex of constructions includes a city with a citadel, there are: a fire temple, a palace on a high platform, a country palace and temple ensemble and plenty of vacant territory which is braided by high shaft and is predetermined for collecting armies and populous celebrations. There are more palaces and temples than inhabited quarters.
Toprak-Kala was the residence of the Khorezm shah in 2-3 centuries A.D. The vast castle was constructed in the form of a rectangle extended from the north to the south, its area – 500x350 m. The city was surrounded with fortifications and square towers, they are each located 10-12 m. There were two-storeyed galleries for defense in walls. In the bottom gallery soldiers had rest, and a top of it were intended for operations. Creation of ditches before fortifications for a spare barrier was the inherent phenomenon of military tactics of that time. A ditch Toprak-Kala surrounded city walls from everywhere; its width was 16 m, and depth – 3 m.
Almost all rooms of a palace were decorated with wall lists and sculptures. Among all of them a big central smart hall - «A hall of tsars» was especially allocated. There, next to the decorated walls are placed 23 clay statues of Khorezm governors. Sizes of statues are twice more than natural sizes. Till today, sculptures remained only in fragments.